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AL: All of the coverage of the shooting incident at Kingston General
Hospital by Millhaven Institution inmate Corey Ward has tended to
focus, understandably, on the effects it has had on the Hospital: staff
are feeling “traumatized” and “violated” according to Dr.
David Messenger, an emergency room doctor and head of the Queen’s
University department of emergency medicine. The
danger to other patients, the shock and fear of patients, their families and friends, and staff, and the need to bring in counselors and support all those deeply upset by the shooting, has been emphasized – again, understandably. The
Kingston-Whig
Standard
ran
with a story November 21
about the security and policy
changes that may take place at the Hospital, as well.

The Union of Canadian Correctional Officers has told the press that both officers feel “shaken up” by the incident, while Correctional Service of Canada officially praised the escort team for being “very diligent and professional.” Ward’s criminal record – 10 years for uttering death threats, violent assault and assaulting a police officer in 2012 – has been released as well.

This local story interests
me for a few other reasons. Initial reports from
CTV via the Canadian Press said Ward was “found unconscious”
in his cell –
this is why he was brought to emergency. But
unconscious
from what? Why? During his arraignment, Ward
asked for a 30-day psychiatric assessment and
complained
that his medications were being withheld – was he on medication?
For what? Is that connected to the medical emergency in his cell?  He
was charged with attempted murder and firing with intent. but
aside from the initial reports saying the firearm was discharged
during a struggle (it’s not unknown for guns to be fired
accidentally during such a situation) and not aimed at anyone
directly, there is no publicly available evidence to back up these
charges. The
Kingston Police claim the escape was not premeditated, either. Again,
during his arraignment, Ward shouted out: “they
[the
correctional officers]
took the cuffs off me and dared me to attack them.”
This
may be a post-hoc justification, of course, and perhaps his escort did nothing of the sort, but given the history and
current relationship between staff and inmates at Millhaven – not
good is an understatement – this is not out of the realm of the possible.

Ward is being transferred to the Regional Reception Centre
in Saint-Anne-Des-Plaines, Quebec, which also houses the super-max Special
Handling Unit – a punitive measure without a doubt. This will also make his legal defense more difficult. Finally,
during the few seconds Ward was taped by CTV being dragged into the
courtroom by the Emergency Response Team escort (doing their best
security theatre routine) he yelled something about “suicide” and
Ashley Smith.” What was he trying to say? Why has this not been
reported on by the CBC or the Whig-Standard in their coverage? Does
this not bear further investigation, that an inmate, no matter how
violent or dangerous, might have a strong historical and communal
understanding of the connection between prison conditions, mental health and suicide?

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“LE CENTRE FEDERAL DE FORMATION: Une prison sans barreaux ou les jeunes
détenus deviennent des hommes,” Le Devoir. November 12, 1955. Page 1 &10.  

par Jean Benoit

C’aurait fort bien pu être le pavillon d’un club de golf, ou encore un chic restaurant pour fins. gourmefs. N’eût été les hautes murailles, flanquées de tourelles aux quatre coins, l’édifice de l’administration du Centre fédéral de formation, à St-Vincent-de-Paul, m’aurait fait penser à certaines maisons cossues de Laval-Ouest.

La porte d’entrée à peine fermée derrière moi, je devais aller de surprise en surprise. Je
m’attendais à traverser deux ou trois grilles de fer cadenassées à double tour, avec à chacune un garde
armé en faction. En fait, j’ai franchi trois seuils, trois portes qui se sont ouvertes devant moi au
signal d’un bouton électrique, comme I’on en trouve dans n’importe quelle maison de rapport de
Montréal. Un garde, dans un bureau vitré, contrôle les entrées et les sorties. Comme tous ceux que je
verrai circuler dans les bureaux et dans l’enceinte de l’institution, il n’est pas armé.

Comme il m’avait fallu une permission
spéciale du Commissaire
fédéral des pénitenciers, j’étais
loin de m’attendre à visiter une
prison sans barreaux. Je me doutais
bien d’y trouver un régime
moins rude que dans les pénitenciers
proprement dits, puisqu’il
s’agit d’un Centre de formation,
mais je ne croyais pas y découvrir
un mode de vie identique à
celui des pensionnats ou des casernes
militaires

 

Car. c’est bien. Là l’impression
générale qui m’est restée des quatre
journées entières passées au
Cenlre fédéral de formation de
St-Vincent-de-Paul. J’y ai vu les
jeunes détenus en classe, au travail
dans les ateliers d’apprentissage,
au jeu dans le gymnase et
aux exercices militaires dans l’enceinte
des murs. J’ai vu les dortoirs.
le réfectoire, le parloir, tout1
comme dans les collèges. J’ai vu
des professeurs, des surveillants
en uniformes de gardes. En aucun
moment je n’ai aperçu de gardeschiourmes.

La fonction du Centre fédéral
de formation est comme son nom
l’indique, de pourvoir à la réhabilitation
de jeunes gens condamnes
au pénitencier et susceptibles d’è
ti e réadaptés à une vie honnête et
normale à l’expiration de leur peine.
Ce Centre n’est pas une école:
de réforme ou une ferme industri
elle. Tous ses pensionnaires vieil
lient du pénitencier voisin de StV’inccnt-dc-Paul,
où ils avaient été
incarcérés pour des sentences minimal de deux ans.

Deux fois par mois, cl plus souvent
si nécessaire, une commission
sélective, composée des sous-directeurs
et des préposés au classement
du pénitencier et du Centre
de formation, étudie les dossiers
et interroge les nouveaux venus
dans le but de découvrir ceux qui
donnent le moindre espoir rie réhabilitation.
Les sujets choisis seront
par la suite transférés au
Centre et soumis au programme
de formation. 

J’ai eu le rare privilège d’assister
à une de ces séances de sélection.
On m’avait énuméré les quatre
facteurs servant de base au
choix: peine maximum de cinq
ans: première condamnation pénitencière;
âges minimum et maximum
de I8 à 25 ans: détenus susceptibles
de réhabilitation. Mais,
j’ai pu constater que les membres
de la commission ajoutent à ces
facteurs un sens profond de la
compréhension humaine qui fait
que chaque détenu est certain d’obtenir
le maximum de chance pour
son transfert du pénitencier au
Centre.

A la séance particulière où j’ai
assisté, sept détenus sur neuf ont

été choisis. Dans les sept cas la
décision a été unanime. Quant aux
deux rejets, ils furent décidés
non pas d’après les dossiers des
détenus mais d’après leur altitude
devant les questions posées. 

Le rôle de la Commission sélective
est d’une importance capitale,
puisque lout le succès du Centre
de formation repose sur elle. Que
les membres choisissent un trop

grand nombre de détenus indésirables tout le programme de réhabilitation
est alors fortement
compromis.    

Les lieux

Le Centre fédéral de formation,
peut-on lire dans une brochure
rédigée par le directeur de l’Institution,
n’cxiste en réalité que depuis
le 1er août 1952. Cependant,
on en a conçu l’idée en 1929, alors
que le gouvernement fédéral décida
de faire l’acquisition du vaste
terrain situé immédiatement à
l’est du pénitencier de Saint-Vincent-de-Paul.

Les travaux d’excavation débutèrent
en 1929, et en 1930-31 commencèrent
les travaux préliminaires
sur remplacement tout d’abord appelé l’établissement Laval.
Des détenus étaient employés comme
niain-d’oeuvre ci au début, les
travaux de construction furent plutôt
lents. A cause du conflit mondial.
qui éclataon en 1939, et pour
d’autres considérations, le projet
lut abandonné à ce moment-là.
pour être repris activement en
1959. Des contrats furent alors
adjugés pour la construction des

principaux édifices, dont la plupart
furent, achevés à l’hiver de
1952. Le 1er avril de cette année-là, 149 détenus furent transférés du
pénitencier de St-Vinecnt-de-Paul:
ce fut la date officielle de la naissance
de celte nouvelle institution,
connue depuis 1951 sous le
nom de Centre fédéral de Formation.

La superficie à l’intérieur des
murs d’enceinte est de quelque
25 acres, dont près d’un tiers
sert de préau réservé à la récréation et la pratique des sports
en plein air. Physiquement, le
Centre Fédéral de Formation se
compose des édifices suivants:

Bureaux de direction et du
conseil d’administration, de classement
et de comptabilité; cour
du directeur; services anthropométriques; salle des surveillants
et parloir;

Deux chapelles, d’une capacité
totale de 609, pour les détenus
catholiques et protestants: 

Une infirmerie de 18 lits et
une clinique dentaire, sous la
direction d’un chirurgien et
d’un dentiste; 

Un centre d’admission et d’orientation
pour les nouveaux
venus; 

Un bloc cellulaire (actuellement
en construction); 

Trois centres d’apprentissage,
d’une capacité de 200 élèves,
pour renseignement primaire de
17 métiers; 

Un gymnase, servant également
de salle de récréation, de
théâtre et de cinéma, d’une capacité
de 600 personnes; 

Une bibliothèque, contenant
plus de 3,000 ouvrages divers,
et de nombreuses revues locales
et; étrangères; rédigées en français
et en anglais; 

Une école de trois classes,
d’une capacité totale de 60 élèves,
sous la direction d’un maître
d’études et de deux adjoints; 

Une cuisine principale, flanquée
de deux réfectoires d’une
capacité totale de 600 personnes,
où les détenus prennent
tous leurs repas; 

Un magasin central, pour la
réception, vérification et distribution
des approvisionnements; 

Une lingerie et une buanderie; 

Des ateliers d’entretien et de
construction générale;

     

Quatre dortoirs d’une capacité de 100 lits chacun. Les dortoirs ont dix étages. Chaque
étage comporte deux ailes distinctes,
composées chacune d’une
salle d’ablution, d’une salle
de récréation, de trois chambrées
de six lits chacune, de
sept chambrettes individuelles, auxquelles les détenus sont assignés au mérite. Les deux ailes
de chaque étage sont séparées
par un bureau cloisonné à l’usage
des surveillants en service.
Les détenus font eux-mémes le lavage et le repassage
de leur linge personnel, dans
les salles d’ablution, qui sont
munies de cuves, séchoirs à la
vapeur, planches et fers à repasser.
La literie est lessivée
à la buanderie centrale. Les
salles de récréation servent de lieu de réunion durant les heures
libres, soit pour lire, écrire écouter la radio, jouer aux cartes, aux dames, aux échecs, etc…

Programme formateur

A leur admission au Centre Fédaral de Formation, les nouveaux venus, qui sont transférés en

groupes d’une vingtaine par mois

s’ont d’abord admis au centre d’orientation, ils sont interviewés dès le debut par le directeur et par la commission de classement. 

Cette commission est le pivot de l’application du programme de traitement des détenus. Elle se compose du sous-directeur, de l’aumonier du maître d’études, du chef de cuisine, et des préposés au classement, à l’apprentissage et aux travaux. Elle se réunit hebdomadairement, pour déterminer le programme d’orientation des nouveaux arrivées; étudier certains cas particuliers; modifier le programme de certains autres; examiner les demandes de clémence et suggérer la liberation prématurée et conditionelle des cas méritants.

Au cours de cette période d’orientation de quatre semaines, les réglements, privilèges et obligations sont expliqués à fond aux nouveaux venus. Ils suivent des cours de culture physique, participent à des jeux organisés, reçoivent des instructionss en sociologie, en hygiene physique et mentale, etc. Ils sont soumis à des tests d’aptitude, en vue de les
diriger diriger vers l’apprentissage d’un métier de leur choix. A la fin de cette période de quatre semaines, ils sont assignés à une

chambree et sont habituellement placés dans une équipe de travail comme manoeuvres en attendant l’occasion de commencer leur apprentissage. Lorsque ce moment est venu, en leur enseigne

d’abord les éléments du métier choisi, et ils sont ensuite versésà un cours de formation proprement dit.

On enseigne, l’apprentissage des métiers suivants:

Ajustage mécanique

briquetage

dessin industriel
ébénisterie

électricité

finissage

forge

maçonnerie

mécanique automobile

menuiserie

métal en feuille

plâtrage

plomberie

rembourrage

tuyauterie

vernissage

soudure.

Ces cours, d’une durée moyennes de dix mois, correspondent à ceux donnés par les centres d’aprentissages provinciaux, subventionnes par le gouvernement provincial, les entrepreneurs généraux en construcction de batiments, et les syndicats ouvriers. Ces cours sont donnés dans de vastes ateliers, eclairés à profusion, munis d’outillage des plus moderne, par des techniciens diplomés d’écoles techniques d’arts ou de metiers, à la solde de l’institution. Ces instructeurs avaient acquis de l’expérience pratique dans l’industrie, avant leur engagement: après leur entrée au service pénitentiaire, ils ont reçu une formation pédagogique solide. Les classes se composent d’un nombre maximum de 15 élèves dont les progrès sont notés et enregistrés mensuellement. A la fin de leur apprentissage, les élèves sont affectés aux équipes d’entretien et de construction, pour y acquerir de l’expériencce pratique, jusqu’au jour de leur libération.

Lcs détenus travaillent de 8 h.

à 5 h., du lundi au vendredi inclusivement. Le samedi avant-midi est réservé au nettoyage général des locaux. Les offices religieux ont lieu vers 8 h. 30 le dimanche matin: immédiatement apres, les détenus obtiennent, de la cantine, des cigarettes, du tabac,des friandises, et autres menus articles, à même le résidu de à leur pécule. Les détenus sont rémunières à raison de 12, 18, ou 24 sous par jour, selon leur anciennete, leur conduite, leur travail et leurs bonnes dispositions.

A tous ceux qui n’ont pas obtenu leur brevet d’études de sixiéme année, on enseigne au minimun les elements de la langue francaise, de la langue anglaise, et de l’arithmétique. Plus de 150 détenus poursuivent, dans leur  temps libre, l’étude de coins divers. 

Par correspondance. Exceptionnellement, on enseigne également à l’école le solfege,la musique, la peinture, le dessin artistique et commercial, le dactylographie, la sténographie, comptabilité et les écritures.  

Des offices religieux ont lieu

tous les dimanches et jours de fêtes
religieuse. Les détenus catholiques et protestants y assistent, 

dans deux chapelles distinctes. Une retraite d’une semaine est prêchée annuellement à tous les détenus par des prédicateurs étrangers, durant la première semaine du carême. L’aumônier est en service régulièrement tous les jiours. Il circule à volonté dans l’institution, les ateliers et parmi les équipes, et accorde des entrevues particulières aux détenus

qui le demandent. Le Centre Fédéral de Formation est le seul pénitencier canadien où le Messe de Minuit est célébrée.

  

Les détenus sont autorisés à recevoir la visite de leurs parents immédiats une fois par mois. 

Normalement cette viste est d’une durée d’une demie heure. Ce privilège est accordé 

sur semaine et, exceptionnellement, le dimanche, lorsque les parents demeurrent à une distance considerable de l’institution 

ou que leurs occupations les empechenent de venir sur semaine. Les détenus ont la permission d’écrire une lettre par semaine

à. leurs parents de qui, cependant, ils peuvent recevoir autant de lettres que ces derniers veulent leur en écrire.

Les détenus de conduite, travail et disposition» exemplaires profiteront à peu près tous du privilège d’une libération conditionnelle surveillée. Depuis la fondation de l’institution au 31 mars 1955, de 499 détenus libérés, 329, soit 66%, ont bénéficié d’une réduction moyenne de trois mois de peine.

….      

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01:56 Matt: I’m noticing that you’re saying segregation, you’re not saying solitary.

02:00 Lisa: So the technical official language in the legislation is segregation. To me, it’s a synonym. Solitary confinement, as we’ve known it in Canada, is synonymous with what is endorsed in the legislation as administrative or disciplinary segregation. And there were many years where Corrections took the position, “Well, we don’t have solitary confinement in Canada, that’s nowhere in our legislation. That’s an American practice, that’s not something we do.” Thankfully, that battle is behind us at this point, and there’s no doubt that this government accepts that we have been doing, what is effectively solitary confinement and that is this practice of keeping people in cells for 23 hours a day and subjecting them to sensory deprivation, social isolation, occupational deprivation, and there’s of course now a large literature on the mental and physical harms that flow from that level of isolation.

02:58 Matt: But I mean… And I guess, again, naive and largely informed by a lifetime spent in pop culture. I’ve always just kind of thought that solitary was for the worst of the worst. It’s how you… It’s where you put the people who are super bad.

03:10 Lisa: It’s a common presumption that anyone who gets thrown in the hole is the worst of the worst. And at this point, what we’re… What is very clear from the empirical evidence is that people with mental health problems are actually vulnerable to being placed in segregation. Why is that? Because they’re the ones who often have a difficult time managing in the general prison population. So general population is quite a demanding environment, socially speaking. You have to be able to navigate complex social arrangements, you have to be able to manage friendships in complex ways, in ways that in ordinary society we’re really not put to challenges like that, you have to manage your relationships with correctional officers and do all of this amid conditions of serious social deprivation.

04:02 Lisa: So people with mental health challenges often don’t do well in the prison context, and so they’re at risk because for correctional officers, they have to somehow manage, manage the prisoner society, and so where people are having difficulties there’s only so many resources and options that correctional officers have, and in recent decades placing someone in a solitary cell, is one way of dealing with the problem. But of course, people with mental health problems are not the worst of the worst, far from it, they’re people who need more meaningful social supports and more meaningful programs and interventions than other inmates. And so this has been one of the real dysfunctions of the use of solitary is that the mentally ill are at risk of being placed there, at more risk than other inmate groups, and the effects of solitary are more severe on them.

04:55 Matt: Then that raises… Just to put a fine point on it. You don’t get sentenced to solitary. When you get sent to prison, the judge doesn’t say, “I’m sentencing you to solitary.” It’s just he sends you to prison. And segregation is an administrative decision.

05:09 Lisa: That’s such an important point, it’s absolutely correct. The sentencing judge has no idea whether the person before them is going to serve their time in solitary or not. And in fact, I think if a sentencing judge were aware of this issue it may actually impact their decision not only whether to sentence you to custody, but what the length of that sentence should be, given that it’s a much more severe form of state punishment. So it’s true, the reasons you get placed in solitary have nothing to do with the offence you’re convicted of. And I do think this gives rise to real problems in terms of the proportionality of punishment in our system. I think the most famous case in Canada, and the case that really activated a national consciousness around this issue is the case of Ashley Smith, and she was of course 19 years old when she died in a segregation cell having been held there for many months and Ashley Smith had committed no remotely serious criminal conduct in the community. When she was placed in juvenile custody, she’d done nothing more than throw crab apples at a postal worker. She had difficulties as a young person, no question, but nothing resembling serious criminal conduct, and yet she was subjected to the most severe form of state punishment in our system.

06:32 Matt: So, and this sounds like… You were alluding to this earlier, it’s… It is an overstressed and in some cases probably not that well-trained system in terms of people making this decision as something they see as a tool in the toolbox and not necessarily understanding how to use it in the most appropriate way.

06:50 Lisa: Well, sure, it’s one of the only tools in the toolbox, and that is… I think this new legislation that the Federal Liberal Party have just tabled. You can see indications in this legislation that we’re gonna listen more to healthcare professionals commenting on whether a segregation placement is appropriate or what’s called these placement in these structured intervention units that the new legislation talks about. And so I think there is a growing recognition that this has been one of the only tools in the toolbox for correctional officers and that we need to move away from it, particularly where it has negative health effects and that we need to invest more in our system to delivering interventions and programs that might assist inmates rather than placing them in segregation and seeing their condition and personality deteriorate.

07:50 Matt: So let’s talk a bit about the new legislation. What’s in it?

07:55 Lisa: Well, the main… It’s interesting, there’s been a couple of… This is now the second draft bill we’ve seen in a year from the liberals, so they’ve taken a couple of different sort of shots at this, and this new bill is really a different approach than what we’ve seen before. Previously over the last couple of years the Liberals have added some procedural protections for those placed in segregation, so some limits on reviews and the timing and so on. Whereas this new bill you’re hearing the Minister of Public Safety, Ralph Goodale, promote this bill by saying that it’s really about ending solitary. And in a significant sense, it does do that.

08:35 Lisa: So, the sections in the prison legislation that allowed administrative segregation, which was sort of the most nefarious practice of segregation, those provisions are repealed under this legislation; would be repealed. So the word segregation will no longer even appear in the legislation, they are replaced with what’s called legislation that allows the use of what’s called “structured intervention units” and the really important change here is that inmates who are placed in these units… No, inmates can still be separated from the general prison population and for the same reasons as before, but now they’ll be entitled to get out of their cells each day for a minimum of four hours, and for two of those four hours it has to be for some sort of meaningful social contact or intervention. So there’s still problems with this new bill and there’s critics who are already asking whether it’s gonna be segregation by a new name or segregation light. But I think it’s significant to really change the sort of culture around just abandoning someone in a cell for 23 hours a day and instead saying every human being in our prison system is entitled to contact with other people and to some form of programming and to be out of their cells for at least a few hours a day. I think that’s an important shift, and this legislation promises to do that.

10:04 Matt: So do you think it will pass?

10:08 Lisa: I do, I think that… I think this government… I mean I’m not an insider in the legislative process, but from what I hear, this government is committed to getting this legislation passed before the election and they really do, I think, want to be the government that ends solitary confinement and that implements, in some way at least, the inquest recommendations following the death of Ashley Smith. They’re also facing two major charter lawsuits that are now set to be heard in provincial courts of appeal in Ontario and British Columbia. And the the legal effect of the judgements that we’ve already had in those cases are that the current provisions that allow administrative segregation, are set to fall, they’ve been declared unconstitutional. There’s been a sort of delay in the effect of those judgements to give government a chance to respond, but those provisions are soon going to be void.

11:10 Matt: Right?

11:10 Lisa: So, the government really did have to act, given that that litigation is… The results of that litigation.

11:18 Matt: So this is a bit kind of spinning, at the end of the day. They’re sort of getting ahead of it and saying, “Look, we’re doing something great,” when kind of the writing was already on the wall, and they were gonna be put in that position regardless, right?

11:28 Lisa: Look, they’re government, they’re government, they’re trying to do multiple things at a time and they’re always… And they’re always having to choose what priorities they have, at any given time. This government when it came to power in those mandate letters that were released from the Prime Minister to his various ministers, they said the Public Safety Minister was directed to implement the Ashley Smith recommendations, did they work on that on day two? No. But it’s not surprising that, especially when it comes to prisoner rights, this is not a… Prisoners aren’t a group that most government spend time working for, unfortunately, they’re a very marginalized voiceless population, so it’s not surprising that pushing through with lawsuits even when we had a government that indicated willingness to reform was still hugely necessary in pushing this to the top of the list. Public Safety Minister is probably one of the busiest ministers in this government and I think that it’s understandable that it took… That it took ongoing pressure to push this legislation to the top of his to do list.

– Matt Shepherd and Lisa Kerr, “A LOOK INSIDE SOLITARY (AND THE PROMISE OF REFORM).” Queen’s University Law Podcast Series. October 29, 2018.

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“Aylmer Man Is Arrested After Lengthy Search,” Ottawa Citizen. October 26, 1938. Page 01 & 04.

Rene Longpre, 24, Who Brutally Attacked Guard, Is Taken in Clarence Street Rooming House.

Dyeing of Hair Fails To Fool Police Officer

Accused Is Turned Over to Quebec Authorities After Capture by Detective Sabourin.

A three-month search for Rene Longpre, 24-year-old Aylmer resident, who escaped from the Aylmer jail after brutally attacking a guard, ended shortly before noon today when the long-wanted youth was taken into custody in a Clarence street rooming house by Detective Ernest Sabourin, of the Ottawa police.

Pauline Huneault, 19, of 50 Rouville street, Hull, who was arrested about an hour after Longpre, admitted to Chief Decosse of the Hull Police that she was an accomplice of Longpre when the home of Mr. and Mrs. Redmond D. Macdonald at Aylmer was robbed on October 16th and the inmates assaulted.

The girl told the police that she and Longpre went to Aylmer on the bus early in the evening and hid in the bushes near the Macdonald home until about 11.30 p.m. They they entered and, being surprised by Mrs. Macdonald, attacked her.

The sum of $55 and a gold watch was stolen from the Macdonald home. The watch was located in the Ottawa Lower Town rooming house in which Longpre and Miss Huneault were found.

Chief Decosse said other arrests may be made.

Hair Was Dyed
When arrested, Longpre was found to have dyed his hair and to have grown a moustache. He had also been wearing glasses. The disguise did not fool the Ottawa detective. Going under the name of Lucien Raymond, Longpre at first denied he was the wanted man, and put up quite an argument. He did not resist arrest otherwise. Detective Sabourin took him to the police station and booked him on a charge of vagrancy. Longpre was turned over this afternoon to Chief Eugene Decosse of the Quebec provincial police in Hull, and Chief Delbert Dumoulin, of the Aylmer police.

Assault on Jail Guard
The Aylmer youth who had been originally arrested by Chief Dumoulin for the Ontario provincial police for cattle rustling in Carleton county, escaped from the Aylmer jail on July 21, shortly after his arrest. He made his getaway after beating the guard. Fred Leon, 35, of Aylmer, over the head and face with a soft drink bottle. Leon had both jaws fractured. Longpre disappeared in the woods alongside the Ottawa river and eluded a posse which searched the whole district for weeks.

Searched Rooming House
It was learned today that Longpre came to Ottawa early in August and had stayed in various Lower Town rooming houses since that time. Information was received by police that the wanted youth was hanging around the city and several rooming houses were searched without success. 

At 11.30 o’clock this morning, Detective Sabourin walked into a Clarence street rooming house and found Longpre in bed.

Longpre will be arraigned tomorrow morning on the jailbreaking and assault charges. A week’s remand likely will be asked by police.

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“Inside Kingston Penitentiary – Ten Years After Canada’s Most Infamous Prison Riot,” Saturday Night. September 1981. Pages 34 & 35.

Part onePart two.

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TERRY Decker, Thirty-Six, Was Attacked and Taken Hostage During The 1971 riot. ‘First they moved us into an air duct. They kept us there for a couple of hours. Then they started locking us away, three to a cell. They made us take off our uniforms and put on inmate clothing. They figured there wouldn’t be any trouble if the people outside didn’t know who was an inmate and who wasn’t. They moved us every couple of hours from one range to another. I don’t know if they did it to confuse our guys, or the inmates who might have wanted to get at us.’

The hostages were treated with an unpredictable mixture of violence and consideration. ‘I was punched pretty good,’ says Decker. ‘They flattened a disc in my back and burst a blood vessel in my eyeball.’ At the same time, he and the other hostages were given double rations. ‘If the inmates got one sandwich, we got two. And tobacco – we had more than we could ever have smoked. I have no complaints there.’ Decker was released as a show of good faith during the negotiations. He’d been held for forty hours. ‘As I was coming out, one lifer said to me, ‘It pays not to be a dog, eh?’

Four months after the incident, he returned to work. He required extensive physiotherapy and cortisone shots in the spine, but since 1973 his health has been sound. Of the six guards held hostage, Decker is the only one who still works in security – he’s now at Collins Bay penitentiary. Two of the hostages have died; one quit; one took a medical pension; one works as a groundskeeper at Millhaven. Only a portion of the prison has been restored. Several ranges have never been reopened, and the top two tiers of the functioning ranges remain sealed off. Prior to posing for this photograph, Decker had not set foot in the part of the prison where he was held hostage since the riot ten years ago. ‘I was in fear for my life all the time.’

‘THERE’S No Call For This Trade Outside,’ Says The Instructor In the Mail bag repair shop, where these inmates were photographed during a coffee break, ‘but it helps the guys do their time and provides a few dollars for upkeep.’ Last year inmates in the shop repaired five thousand bags a week. The penitentiary earns a dollar for each mailbag it repairs, but eighty four cents goes to materials. Work programmes at Kingston – like hobby and recreational activities – are curtailed by outdated facilities. The only work of rehabilitative value is data processing. Inmates are coding the records of the National Museum of Science and Technology into computer banks. ‘We’re going to get a lot more terminals,’ says Andrew Graham, the warden. ‘It’s a popular programme, and it’s a skill that’s very much in demand on the street.’

Inmates used to be paid a pittance. Last May, however, the federal pay scale was revised to coincide with civilian minimum wage rates, less the eighty-five percent of income that Statisticcs Canada calculates a single man would spend on food, lodging, and clothes. Depending on the nature of his work, a prisoner in a federal institution came between $3.15 and $5.90 a day in maximum security, $3.70 and $6.45 in medium, and $4.80 and $7.55 in minimum. Twenty-five per cent of his pay is withheld as compulsory savings. An inmate serving a lengthy sentence now has the opportunity of returning to civilian life with a few thousand dollars, rather than a few hundred.

There are good reasons for the graduate pay scale. The first is the cost of incarceration. To keep an inmate in maximum security costs $35,800 a year, versus $22,600 for medium security and $18,400 for minimum. (In a community correctional centre – where inmates work at civilian jobs and return to custody each night – the cost is $11,500. The cost of parole is $1,600 a year.) The graduated pay scale also encourages inmates to behave well in order to qualify for an institution with a lower security rating – and a higher pay scale.

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“The Central Prison Farm, consisting of about eight hundred and thirty acres, is situated in the Township of Guelph, in the County of Wellington, about two miles east of the City of Guelph. The property, which is capable of magnificent development, is traversed from South to North by the River Speed and its beautiful valley. The Railway facilities are excellent, the Canadian Pacific Railway right through the Farm, and paralleling the River, while the Grand Trunk Railway passes immediately to the North. After an exhaustive examination of a number of properties in different parts of the Province, the purchase of the present site was directed by Order-in-Council, approved by His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor on the 21st of December, 1909.

Qualifications for a Prison Site
In selecting a site most adaptable for a Prison Farm, there were many qualifications which were requisite, namely: good agricultural land; an inexhaustible supply of stone suitable for road and building construction; sand and gravel for building purposes; proximity to the centre of population, so as to minimize as far as possible the cost of transporting prisoners; convenient railway facilities; and a building site which would have good drainage and a plentiful supply of fresh water. While these essentials present a difficult combination, the location selected possesses all the necessary qualifications for an ideal Prison Farm.

The Initial Stages – Temporary Quarters
Possession was taken in April, 1910, when fourteen prisoners and two officers were quartered in one of the farm-houses. As the former owners of the farms moved out and more farmhouses were available, the number of prisoners was increased to fifty. General farm work and land improvement were vigorously carried on, roads were made, swamp-land was drained, and tangled morasses were cleared and converted into garden spots. In the latter part of the following June, the erection of a temporary structure, having accommodation for one hundred and fifty prisoners and a sufficient number of officers, was completed. This structure will be used pending the completion of the permanent building.

Improvements
Much has already been done in the way of economic improvement and development of the property. To connect the Farm on either side of the River Speed, and as part of the scheme of permanent roadways, a reinforced concrete bridge, designed by the Provincial Engineer of Highways, has been erected by Prison labor. This bridge is one hundred and sixty feet in length and has three arches, a centre one of fifty feet and one of twenty feet on each end. The approaches to the bridge, measuring approximately twelve hundred feet, have been filled in with refuse from the quarries, which was transported by the Farm Railways in dump cars and dumped from a temporary wooden trestle.

Plant and Equipment
About two and a half miles of telephone line have been built for the purpose of connecting the different parts of the Farm with the Central Office. In addition to this, waterworks have been installed for construction and domestic uses, supplying the purest of spring water from a thirteen thousand gallon concrete reservoir to a ten thousand gallon tank, from which it is distributed by gravity to the different points of consumption.

A narrow-gauge railway about two and a half miles in length is in operation, over which dimension and crushed stone and other building materials are hauled to the different building sites.

Orchard
An orchard of eighteen hundred apple, cherry, pear and plum trees and fifteen hundred small fruits was planted in the Spring of 1911.

Dairying
As the Prison Farm has superior agricultural land, good pasture on the low lands, the best of water, plenty of shade, and possibilities second to none for producing hay, fodder and root crops, dairy farming will be made a feature of the work, with profit to the Prison Farm and with advantage to the other Provincial Institutions. The dairy herd now consists of over one hundred and twenty-five Holsteins, and a thoroughly modern dairy barn is in course of erection, which, when completed, will provide accommodation for eighty milch cows. In designing this stable, special care has been taken to secure one that will be absolutely dry and will have an abundance of fresh air and sunlight.

Industries
Having in view the utilization to the best advantage of the natural resources of the Farm, and in order to construct the permanent buildings in the most economic and efficient manner, a number of industries have been established, a brief description of each being given below:-

Quarries
There is an abundance of dolomitic limestone rock in high cliffs on both sides of the River Speed, which is of superior quality and suitable for building purposes, lime manufacture and roadmaking. Two quarries have been opened up, from which all stone used in construction, lime manufacture and stone-crushing is quarried.

Stone-Crusher Plant
A stone crusher, having a daily capacity of four hundred tons, has been installed, the product is screened to two and a half inches, one and half inches, three-quarters of an inch and dust, and is used for concrete, road making and the other industries on the Farm.

Experimental Work – Limestone as a Fertilizer
Experiments conducted at various Agricultural Experimental Stations throughout the United States and elsewhere have warranted arrangements being made to carry on a number of experiments during the coming year at the farms of the Provincial Hospitals for the Insane, with a view to ascertaining the benefits to be derived from the use of ground limestone as a fertilizer. The result of these experiments will be at the disposal of the farmers of Ontario, and ground limestone will be furnished them at a minimum cost.

Good Roads Material
Shipping facilities will be available next year to permit of crushed stone being supplied in large quantities to the Municipalities of the Province for road-making purposes.

Lime – Hydrate – Lime used in Concrete
As an enormous quantity of lime will be used in the construction of the permanent buildings on the Farm, as well as in the construction and repair of all other Provincial buildings, a Lime-Kiln has been erected. In conjunction with this, a thoroughly modern Hydrated Lime Plant is being operated. The advantages of hydrated lime over the ordinary lump lime are many, but the most important of all are, the purity and uniformity of product, complete hydration or ‘slacking,’ and the storage of product indefinitely without loss. The lime manufactured is of the best quality, and, being high in Magnesia, is unexcelled for building purposes. In all concrete construction on the Farm, ten per cent. of Cement is displaced by ten per cent. of Hydrated Lime.

Structural Tile
Structural Tiles of Concrete are now being manufactured, and with the exception of cement, all materials entering into their manufacture are available on the premises. As many of the buildings to be erected will be of the skeleton type of reinforced concrete with curtain walls of tile, the cost of construction, with tile manufactured on the premises by prison labour, will be reduced to the minimum. As these tiles are hollow, they are non-conductors of heat and cold and are damp-resisting. The walls and buttresses in the first story of the Dairy Stable are constructed entirely of these structural tiles.

Possibilities
With the great diversity of work in quarrying, manufacturing, building in all its branches, farming, gardening and dairying, referred to before, it is apparent that there is employment suited to the various inclinations and aptitudes of the complex element that composes the usual prison population.

Central Prison Farm, Guelph – Ontario. Corner stone of Administration Building laid by The Honorable Sir James Pliny Whitney, Prime Minister of Ontario, the 25th day of September, 1911. Toronto, King’s Printer: 1911.

Guelph Museums collection, 

2004.32.101.

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“Inside Kingston Penitentiary – Ten Years After Canada’s Most Infamous Prison Riot,” Saturday Night. September 1981. Pages 32 & 33.


Part one. Part three.
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‘THE Cells Are Opened at 7 In the Morning,’ Says An Inmate Sentenced To life. ‘Breakfast is at 7.30. You go the kitchen by ranges, then back to your cell with your tray. You’re locked in with your food until 8 while the medication trolley comes around. From 8 to 11 you work. Back to your cell at 11, lunch and maybe a sleep until 1, then back to work until 3:30. Supper, until 6. After supper, you can be out on the range, playing cards or watching TV. Or you can go to the exercise yard in summer, the gym in winter. Lockup is 11 o’clock. Day after day. Month after month. Year after year.’

Routine, repetition, numbing boredom. The inmate’s lot is grim; but less so than it once was. One of the major reforms of the past decade is a programme of family visits. At present these are restricted to maximum-security institutions (whose inmates are ineligible for the termporary absences available to medium- and minimum-security inmates), although they may soon be extended to medium-security prisons. The programme was introduced last year at Millhaven, where a white mobile home stands inside the security fences. There is a small fenced yard for children, with swings and a teeter-totter. The authorities provide food and other necessities. The purpose of the programme, an official explains, is ‘to keep the family together, to maintain some continuity so the inmate’s got something to go back to. It’s not to dangle a carrot for good behaviour. It’s not even to cut down on homosexuality in the institution – those are side effects.’ A similar programme was started in Attica in New York State three years ago. ‘It’s early to make any sweeping statements,’ says the official, ‘but the people there the recividism among the men who got visits is way, way down.’

At Kingston, there is no programme of conjugal visits. Inmate’s contact with family and friends consists of letters and supervised visits. The inmate above asked to be photographed so that his girlfriend could have his picture.

WITH Waxed Moustached, Medal Ribbons, and Military Bearing, Tom Rathwell, the supervising keeper (or head guard) at Kingston, appears as anachronistic as the penitentiary itself. In fact, he is respected – even liked – by virtually all the inmates. ‘I don’t know who they’ll get when he goes on retirement,’ says a bank robber. ‘I mean, he’s a man you can trust. I remember one time we had a sit-down strike in the gym. The guys wanted to kill the warden – they had iron bars and they were ugly. Then, after a day-and-a-half, the door opened – boom! – and in walked Tom Rathwell, right in among us. He went around to all the ringleaders and wagged a finger under their noses – ‘This is your doing, don’t think I don’t know that.’ He made them feel like kids. After that, we all caved in.’

A veteran of the Second World War, Rathwell, sixty-one, joined the penitentiary service in 1947. Except for a few months at Millhaven, he has spent his entire career at Kingston. ‘Things were much tougher before ‘71,’ he says. ‘Everything was very military. Men marched everywhere in lines, they weren’t allowed to dress sloppily, they had to be very polite with the guards. If they called you by your first name, you were supposed to charge them. It didn’t help. You can’t treat people like that. I try to be straight with them. If they ask about their parole, or what their chances are of a move, and I don’t think they have a hope, I tell them. If you say, ‘That’s up to the classification officers,’ it just makes them mad.’

A Kingston inmate handed a note to the photographer and asked that it be given to the writer. The note reads, ‘While speaking with Mr. Rathwell the other day he made a comment which I thought worth passing on to you. He seldom uses bad language, but this is what he said: ‘They told me when I started here thirty-four years ago to treat all prisoners alike. It was bullshit then and it’s bullshit now.’

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