Feeds:
Posts
Comments

Posts Tagged ‘ontario reformatory’

“Jack Lett Is Given Ten Years In Prison,” Toronto Star. November 22, 1918. Page 02.

Canadian Express Co. Robber Also Pleads Guilty to Robbing Union Bank.

Jack Lett, the embryo highwayman who robbed the Canadian Express Co. of $20,000 on October 23, was to-day given ten years in the penitentiary. He withdrew his plea of not guilty and pleaded guilty to robbing the Union Bank and stealing an automobile. For these crimes he also received five and three years respectively. The sentences are to run concurrently.

His brother, Walter Lett, also withdrew his plea of not guilty and pleaded guilty to having received $1,000, which he knew to be stolen. This money he gave to his wife. He was let go on remanded sentence provided he gives $1,000 security and finds two other securities of $1,000 each.

James Gordon Dougall is to spend not less than one year and not more than two years in the Ontario Reformatory.

In addressing Jack Lett, Chief Justice Meredith said: ‘I have no desire to add to the severity of your sentence by lecturing you. I regret that I have no testimony as to your mental capabilities, so I must judge you as I have seen you. The main trouble with you seems to be inordinate vanity. In opening your case your counsel has pictured you as a pigeon-chested, varicose-veined misfit, who is undeveloped both physically and mentally.

Looking Into the Future.
‘Your picture of yourself is that of a bold highwayman. It is to cure you of this delusion that you are to be disciplined. If you were allowed to go free that gun of yours might go off some time, and then some judge would be talking about Jack Lett being hanged by the neck until he was dead.

‘If there had only been a ‘man’ in that express car who would have given you a good thrashing, taken away your pistol, and thrown you out you would have been cured. The only thing to do now is to seek to cure you by the panacea of hard labor.

‘Jack Lett, you were not made for a highwayman. You were given freedom of that express car. Afterwards you went wandering about like a frightened child, and impressed the first man whom you met as a thief. Moreover you left your plunder right under the very nose of those who suspected you. 

‘Walter Lett, you certainly did not do all you could to save your brother, and let me tell you the offence to which you plead guilty is a serious one.

Severe Words For Dougall.
‘James Gordon Dougall, your case has caused me a deal of thought. You were the chief clerk, you held a responsible position, and you can understand that your connection with this crime will cast suspicion upon your associates and inferiors. You were leading a disgraceful life. Don’t you think one should be horsewhipped for a life of that kind.

‘You were found guilty of the lesser offence, but a jury might well have found you the instigator in this farce.’

All the prisoners refused to say anything in their defence, and received their sentences in silence.

Read Full Post »

“Veterans Consider Punishment Too Harsh,” Toronto Globe. November 6, 1918. Page 13.

Soldier Sent To Prison Farm For Refusing To Take Electric Treatment.

(Canadian Press Despatch.)
Kingston, Nov. 5. – The Veterans are protesting against the punishment imposed at Toronto on Pte. John Pope of the 80th Battalion, who was given two years, less one day, at Burwash Prison Farm  because he refused to take electrical treatment for shell-shock. The Veterans regarded such punishment as altogether too harsh, and Commandant Evans was directed to take the matter up with the Minister of Militia.

Read Full Post »

“Youths Given Hard Labor,” The Globe and Mail. October 27, 1938. Page 03.

Barrie, Oct. 26 (Special). – Magistrate Compton Jeffs today sentenced three youthful burglars who entered Reeves jewelry store here at an early hour on October 14, stealing more than $2,000 worth of watches, rings and cigaret holders. The loot was recovered two days later in a house at 26 Beatty Avenue, Toronto, through the efforts of Toronto police detectives and local police.

His Worship meted out terms of twelves months definite plus twelve indeterminate, at hard labor, in the Ontario reformatory, to each of the three youths.

Mike Kornick, aged 18, no address, and Alex. Young, aged 18, no address, pleaded guilty a week ago to breaking and entering. Walter Andrews, aged 22, residing on Beatty Avenue, Toronto, where the loot was recovered by Toronto detectives, pleaded guilty to receiving stolen goods.

Magistrate Jeffs treated each alike in passing sentence. Charges of receiving had been withdrawn against two others.

‘I am influenced to this extent,’ he said. ‘When you consider the deliberate and extensive looting, my first idea was that it was a case for Portsmouth Penitentiary, but in view of what has been said as to your youth, and in hope that leniency may have some influence on you, I have decided that your sentence will be served in Ontario reformatory.’

Crown Attorney F. A. Hammond, K.C. pointed out that Young had a record dating back to 1935, and that both he and Kornick had used aliases

Read Full Post »

“Two Mercer Escapees Nabbed In Hamilton,” The Globe and Mail. October 19, 1948. Page 05.

While crews of police cruisers searched the King St. W. vicinity of Mercer reformatory yesterday, two escaping women inmates calmly took a streetcar to the western city limits.

There, an obliging motorist, not noticing their white institutional smocks, drove them to the Humber River approach to the Queen Elizabeth Highway.

A cache of clothing, believed by police have been arranged by friends, enabled the escaping women to rid themselves of the reformatory apparel. A second motorist picked them up and took them to Hamilton, where, less than three hours after their escape, they were arrested.

The two, Camille Dinwoodle, 38, of Toronto, and Audrey Greenfield, 27, of Hamilton, were detailed yesterday afternoon to move garbage. They moved the garbage out and kept going. The matron saw them heading for freedom, gave chase and lost them. The pair clambered over a fence to railway tracks and escaped down the right-of-way.

While police searched, the couple took a streetcar to Sunnyside. Two rides later, they were in Hamilton at Mulberry and Railway Streets where detectives, alerted by Toronto police, picked them up.

‘Where did you get those coats?’ Hamilton police asked the women. They got no satisfactory answer. They will be returned to Toronto today.
—-
Hamilton, October 18 (Staff). – Whether they objected to putting out the garbage or whether they wanted to see the profusion of autumn color along Hamilton’s Mountain, Camille Dinwoodle and Audrey Greenfield didn’t say when they were picked up.

Det.-Sgts. Clarence Preston and Orrie Young, informed of the girls’ escape by radio, were cruising in the Mulberry St. area when Det.-Sgt. Preston, who knew one of the girls, saw them. They made no attempt to escape when approached by the police officers.

They were lodged in Barton St. Jail, and will be returned to Mercer tomorrow.

Read Full Post »

“10 Years in Jail Escapee’s Price For 13 Free Days,” The Globe and Mail. October 8, 1948. Page 05.

In 13 days, David Cameron, 24, committed offences which netted him a prison term of 10 years. Magistrate Thomas Elmore sentenced Cameron yesterday for the latter’s armed robbery of a taxi-driver; breaking into a service station; attempted break-in of a second station; carrying an offensive weapon, and escaping from Burwash reformatory.

Cameron was given the 10-year-term for his robbery of taxi-driver John Kusian. Terms on the other charges against Cameron were made concurrent. The 10-year sentence will be consecutive to a three-months term the accused is now serving for a conviction registered in May.

Cameron escaped from Burwash Reformatory in September. The total sentence, which included the concurrent terms, amounted to 17 years.

‘You have had seven previous convictions before all this,’ His Worship told Cameron. ‘It is fortunate that no one has been injured.’

Read Full Post »

“Prison Terms Are Meted Out,” Hamilton Spectator. October 8, 1938. Page 01.

Three Years For Costello, Two For MacAvella Imposed By Court

A
total of six years in prison terms was imposed on three men who
appeared before three men who appeared before Judge Ernest F. Lazier in
county criminal court Friday afternoon.

Frank Costello, aged 21,
one of a family of seven children, was sentenced to three years in
Kingston penitentiary when he pleaded guilty to four charges of theft of
automobiles.

Douglas MacAvella was sentenced to two years in
Kingston penitentiary when he was convicted of the theft if six auto
batteries from the Super-Lastic Sales corporation. He was acquitted of
the theft of an automobile.

Albert Peddie was given a one-year
term sentence for theft imposed in magistrate’s court, when Judge Lazler
convicted him of breaking into the garage of Robert McKee, Cannon street
and Sanford avenue, and the theft of electric drills and other tools
from it.

Appearing for Costello, Joseph D. Sullivan said he had a
‘heart to heart’ talk with him at the jail, but could only account for
his misdemeanours by his disposition toward recklessness.

‘I agree
with Mr. Sullivan that a reformatory term would have no effect in
redeeming him’ said George W. Ballard, K.C., crown attorney, handing
Costello’s record card to the judge.

Detective Albert Speakman
testified as to auto thefts in August and September when cars were stolen
belonging to James Ray, Grimsby Beach; Hertbert Ticker, Toronto; Harold
Jaggard, Cathcart street, and R. A. Bergdorf, York street.

Car Smashed
Mr. Tucker’s car was found near Dunnville badly smashed, Detective Speakman told the court.

Called
by the crown to testify in the MacAvella case, two young women and a
young man who were playing tennis on the courts of the First United
church, said they saw the accused carry batteries and place them in a
car on August 26. Judge Lazier found there was insufficient evidence to
justify his conviction for auto theft.

MacAvella denied theft of
the batteries, and added he had obligingly thrown back two tennis balls to
the young people who had testified against him.

In Peddie’s case,
Detective Speakman told of stopping the accused in his car, finding a
wrecking bar, hacksaw, tools and a large pair of snips. Robert McKee,
proprietor of a garage which was broken into, identified some of the
tools by his initials on them.

MacAvella and Peddie were without
counsel. Both had records. The convicted trio were led from the court
room, their hands manacled together.

Read Full Post »

“Escaped from Burwash; Sent To Kingston,” Ottawa Standard. October 8, 1918.

Two Young Men Start Early on Downward Career.

Sentences of two years in Kingston penitentiary were meted out to two young men, Joseph Claro and Norman G. Williams, who pleaded guilty in Tuesday’s police court to escaping from Burwash Industrial Farm. The two seemed thoroughly repentant for their action, but the court thought that their chances for parole would be better at Kingston than at the institution they had just left.

Young in Crime
Norman Williams is but 20 years of age. He was sentenced at Toronto to serve a term for the theft of an automobile. On the 24th of September he escaped from custody and when caught was taken back with just a warning. On October 4th, he escaped again in company of Joseph Claro, alias Joseph Cleroux. This man has a bad record, with a previous term at the penitentiary, time in local jails and a reform school, and a lengthy sentence at Burwash ahead before his elopment. He and Williams escaped from the Industrial Farm, made their way along the rail line, evading the guards searching for them, and absconding with a motor car in Copper Cliff….
[damage in original]
….consecutively with the sentences they were serving.

‘Notwithstanding your youthfulness you are dangerous characters to be at large, and if I send you to Kingston Penitentiary I think they will be able to help you there,’ Magistrate Askwith declared.

Their recapture Tuesday afternoon was effected by Inspector Joliet and his squad after an exciting chase through New Edinburgh. Shots were fired by the detectives.

Read Full Post »

“Youth Leaves Jail To Work Out Fine,” The Globe and Mail. October 7, 1948. Page 02.

At the request of Major Alec MacMillan of the Salvation Army, 16-year-old Terry Smith of Sackville St. was released from Don Jail Tuesday night. Terry, convicted of ill-treating a kitten, was unable to pay a $50 fine, and was sentenced to 10 days in jail by Magistrate Thomas Elmore.

Major MacMillan said Terry was a ‘good boy,’ and would work to raise money to meet the $50 fine.
====
“Faces Sentence In Taxi Robbery,”

The Globe and Mail. October 7, 1948. Page 02.


David Cameron, 24, will be sentenced today by Magistrate Thomas Elmore after being convicted yesterday of robbing taxi driver John Kusian about two weeks ago. Kusian charged that Cameron had placed a butcher knife against his back and robbed him of $16.

Cameron faces sentence on four additional charges; Breaking into a service station on Fleet St., possession of an offensive weapon, attempted break-in of a second service station on Front St., and escape from Burwash Reformatory.

Cameron, 24 years old, escaped from reformatory on Sept. 9, and was said to have committed all the misdemeanors since the date. He pleaded guilty to all except the armed robbery charge.

Read Full Post »

“The Central Prison Farm, consisting of about eight hundred and thirty acres, is situated in the Township of Guelph, in the County of Wellington, about two miles east of the City of Guelph. The property, which is capable of magnificent development, is traversed from South to North by the River Speed and its beautiful valley. The Railway facilities are excellent, the Canadian Pacific Railway right through the Farm, and paralleling the River, while the Grand Trunk Railway passes immediately to the North. After an exhaustive examination of a number of properties in different parts of the Province, the purchase of the present site was directed by Order-in-Council, approved by His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor on the 21st of December, 1909.

Qualifications for a Prison Site
In selecting a site most adaptable for a Prison Farm, there were many qualifications which were requisite, namely: good agricultural land; an inexhaustible supply of stone suitable for road and building construction; sand and gravel for building purposes; proximity to the centre of population, so as to minimize as far as possible the cost of transporting prisoners; convenient railway facilities; and a building site which would have good drainage and a plentiful supply of fresh water. While these essentials present a difficult combination, the location selected possesses all the necessary qualifications for an ideal Prison Farm.

The Initial Stages – Temporary Quarters
Possession was taken in April, 1910, when fourteen prisoners and two officers were quartered in one of the farm-houses. As the former owners of the farms moved out and more farmhouses were available, the number of prisoners was increased to fifty. General farm work and land improvement were vigorously carried on, roads were made, swamp-land was drained, and tangled morasses were cleared and converted into garden spots. In the latter part of the following June, the erection of a temporary structure, having accommodation for one hundred and fifty prisoners and a sufficient number of officers, was completed. This structure will be used pending the completion of the permanent building.

Improvements
Much has already been done in the way of economic improvement and development of the property. To connect the Farm on either side of the River Speed, and as part of the scheme of permanent roadways, a reinforced concrete bridge, designed by the Provincial Engineer of Highways, has been erected by Prison labor. This bridge is one hundred and sixty feet in length and has three arches, a centre one of fifty feet and one of twenty feet on each end. The approaches to the bridge, measuring approximately twelve hundred feet, have been filled in with refuse from the quarries, which was transported by the Farm Railways in dump cars and dumped from a temporary wooden trestle.

Plant and Equipment
About two and a half miles of telephone line have been built for the purpose of connecting the different parts of the Farm with the Central Office. In addition to this, waterworks have been installed for construction and domestic uses, supplying the purest of spring water from a thirteen thousand gallon concrete reservoir to a ten thousand gallon tank, from which it is distributed by gravity to the different points of consumption.

A narrow-gauge railway about two and a half miles in length is in operation, over which dimension and crushed stone and other building materials are hauled to the different building sites.

Orchard
An orchard of eighteen hundred apple, cherry, pear and plum trees and fifteen hundred small fruits was planted in the Spring of 1911.

Dairying
As the Prison Farm has superior agricultural land, good pasture on the low lands, the best of water, plenty of shade, and possibilities second to none for producing hay, fodder and root crops, dairy farming will be made a feature of the work, with profit to the Prison Farm and with advantage to the other Provincial Institutions. The dairy herd now consists of over one hundred and twenty-five Holsteins, and a thoroughly modern dairy barn is in course of erection, which, when completed, will provide accommodation for eighty milch cows. In designing this stable, special care has been taken to secure one that will be absolutely dry and will have an abundance of fresh air and sunlight.

Industries
Having in view the utilization to the best advantage of the natural resources of the Farm, and in order to construct the permanent buildings in the most economic and efficient manner, a number of industries have been established, a brief description of each being given below:-

Quarries
There is an abundance of dolomitic limestone rock in high cliffs on both sides of the River Speed, which is of superior quality and suitable for building purposes, lime manufacture and roadmaking. Two quarries have been opened up, from which all stone used in construction, lime manufacture and stone-crushing is quarried.

Stone-Crusher Plant
A stone crusher, having a daily capacity of four hundred tons, has been installed, the product is screened to two and a half inches, one and half inches, three-quarters of an inch and dust, and is used for concrete, road making and the other industries on the Farm.

Experimental Work – Limestone as a Fertilizer
Experiments conducted at various Agricultural Experimental Stations throughout the United States and elsewhere have warranted arrangements being made to carry on a number of experiments during the coming year at the farms of the Provincial Hospitals for the Insane, with a view to ascertaining the benefits to be derived from the use of ground limestone as a fertilizer. The result of these experiments will be at the disposal of the farmers of Ontario, and ground limestone will be furnished them at a minimum cost.

Good Roads Material
Shipping facilities will be available next year to permit of crushed stone being supplied in large quantities to the Municipalities of the Province for road-making purposes.

Lime – Hydrate – Lime used in Concrete
As an enormous quantity of lime will be used in the construction of the permanent buildings on the Farm, as well as in the construction and repair of all other Provincial buildings, a Lime-Kiln has been erected. In conjunction with this, a thoroughly modern Hydrated Lime Plant is being operated. The advantages of hydrated lime over the ordinary lump lime are many, but the most important of all are, the purity and uniformity of product, complete hydration or ‘slacking,’ and the storage of product indefinitely without loss. The lime manufactured is of the best quality, and, being high in Magnesia, is unexcelled for building purposes. In all concrete construction on the Farm, ten per cent. of Cement is displaced by ten per cent. of Hydrated Lime.

Structural Tile
Structural Tiles of Concrete are now being manufactured, and with the exception of cement, all materials entering into their manufacture are available on the premises. As many of the buildings to be erected will be of the skeleton type of reinforced concrete with curtain walls of tile, the cost of construction, with tile manufactured on the premises by prison labour, will be reduced to the minimum. As these tiles are hollow, they are non-conductors of heat and cold and are damp-resisting. The walls and buttresses in the first story of the Dairy Stable are constructed entirely of these structural tiles.

Possibilities
With the great diversity of work in quarrying, manufacturing, building in all its branches, farming, gardening and dairying, referred to before, it is apparent that there is employment suited to the various inclinations and aptitudes of the complex element that composes the usual prison population.

Central Prison Farm, Guelph – Ontario. Corner stone of Administration Building laid by The Honorable Sir James Pliny Whitney, Prime Minister of Ontario, the 25th day of September, 1911. Toronto, King’s Printer: 1911.

Guelph Museums collection, 

2004.32.101.

Read Full Post »

“Guards Use Tear Gas: Reformatory Riot Follows Open House,” The Globe and Mail. September 25, 1962. Pages 01 & 12.

Special to The Globe and Mail

Guelph, Sept. 24 – The first open house in history at the Ontario Reformatory here last weekend affected about 30 inmates today – they rioted.

Superintendent Charles Sanderson said some disturbance usually follows any unusual program, such as the open house that attracted more than 10,000 persons to the institution.

The prisoners were subdued within 15 minutes after guards pumped large quantities of tear gas into the dining room. There was considerable damage, but no injuries were reported.

Mr. Sanderson said the prisoners did not attempt to leave the dining room, but smashed crockery and windows. They were removed to a prison yard after the outbreak and more than 350 inmates eating in an adjoining room were also removed for safety.

There had been a couple of incidents in the dormitories during the weekend that led him to expect trouble, the superintendent said, ‘but I didn’t expect anything as serious as this.’

About 30 inmates overturned and broke about 25 windows Saturday night and there were a couple of fights between prisoners, Mr. Sanderson said. One guard received a broken nose attempting to break up one fight.

‘Their fun involves vandalism,’ the superintendent added.

About 15 men involved in the dormitory disturbances were today transferred to the maximum security at Millbrook.

The men in the large dining room were brought back into the building just before 5 p.m. They had been confined in a prison yard since noon.

About 250 men who were in the small dining room remained in another room.

Mr. Sanderson said the 250 inmates of the reformatory will spend the night in the prison yard and will not be given any food until morning.

‘It is unfortunate that we have to leave all the men out because we are not yet sure who all the troublemakers are,’ he said.

The staff at the reformatory was doubled in strength tonight with about 80 men on duty. Guards are watching from rooftops and other locations with tear-gas guns ready.

Mr. Sanderson said that it was the prompt use of the tear gas that prevented the trouble from becoming more serious.

Read Full Post »

“Alcatraz of Canada Groups Troublemakers Behind High Walls,” The Globe and Mail. September 11, 1962. Page 04.

By EDWARD CLIFFORD
Globe and Mail Reporter

Millbrook, Sept. 10 – They call Millbrook Reformatory the Alcatraz of Canada.

Behind the 20-foot brick wall are 150 prisoners living a regimented life that they leave only when they finish their terms or change their behauviour.

There have been successful or even near-successful escapes from Millbrook in its five years as a maximum security institution. Here are housed the troublemakers of the Ontario corrections system.

A visitor to Millbrook might be impressed by its efficiency, its cleanliness, even its meals. It doesn’t give the impression of tough, steel and stone Big House where defiant men are broken.

‘It doesn’t seem so tough for an ordinary law-abiding citizen,’ said Millbrook’s superintendent, J. M. Marsland, ‘but the prisoners here are essentially manipulators who all their lives have tried to adapt situations to their own advantage. Here, they can’t. This is the most frustrating experience of their lives.’

To Millbrook are sent men from other Ontario reformatories, men who have repeatedly caused trouble, instigated disturbances, or have gotten fellow prisoners into trouble.

Here also are sent drug addicts and sex deviants who are kept in groups so they will not spread their habits to younger and more impressionable inmates in other reformatories.

No maximum security prison in Canada or the United States is more modern than Millbrook, its superintendent says. Prisoners are escorted everywhere by guards. Cell and block doors are electrically controlled by other guards sitting in bulletproof glass booths.

They work together, have recreation and exercise periods together, but eat in their own cells. Because they spend much of their time alone, Millbrook prisoners have time to think about their lives and their crimes.

When a man reaches Millbrook, he spends two weeks in a reception cell during which time he sees only reformatory staff, doctors and psychologists. From then on, he gets privileges as he earns them by good behavior.

He can forfeit his privileges by loafing, failing to obey prison rules or acting up. For repeated infractions, a prisoner can earn a period of solitary confinement.

This is why criminals call Millbrook the Alcatraz of Canada, and this is why Millbrook produces some model inmates.

‘Of course, we’re not as interested in producing model inmates as we are in producing model citizens,’ Mr. Marsland emphasized.

Consequently, prisoners are encouraged to work in one of the shops at the reformatory: the laundry, tailor shop, or license-plate plant. There it is possible to learn skills that could lead to a good job when the inmate finishes his sentence.

A prisoner can also get psychological help  and, in the case of a drug addict, help in curing him of his addiction.

By demonstrating that his attitude has changed, a prisoner can earn a transfer to an institution where discipline and security are more relaxed.

Not everyone in Millbrook is able to accept the reformatory’s way of life. One prisoner collected the hems off blankets, wove them into a rope, and wound it around his waist in preparation for the day he could weight one end, toss it over the wall, and climb to freedom.

‘He wouldn’t have made it anyway,’ said Mr. Marsland. ‘The rope was discovered in a routine frisking prisoners undergo regularly.’

The only organized disturbance since Millbrook was established came shortly after Mr. Marsland arrived as superintendent three years ago.

‘They were testing me,’ he said. A group of prisoners refused to enter their cells to eat. The superintendent, an ex-Royal Air Force fighter and bomber pilot, told the men the strictest disciplinary measures would be taken if they did not go to their cells. They went.

Actually, Millbrook inmates have little cause for complaint. They know ahead of time that it’s tough and are prepared for it. They can’t object to the discipline, and there is no reason to complain about the food, accommodation or clothing.

One prisoner, however, has a decided aversion to life in the institution where all the inmates wear blue denim. Currently confined to the prison hospital, and likely to remain there until his sentence is finished, he lounges quietly in bed counting the days. His sickness: Blue denim allergy.

Caption: Millbrook prisoners line up to leave license-plate plant while guards watch (left). They are searched, then go to cells.

Read Full Post »

“Joy Riders Sentenced,” Toronto Globe. September 5, 1918. Page 07.

Stiff sentences were meted out in the Police Court yesterday morning to two young men who went for a joy ride in an automobile they found conveniently on the street. Joseph Murphy, who had a previous record, was sentenced to two years in the penitentiary, while Ernest Young was sent to the Ontario Reformatory for one year.

Read Full Post »

“A New Home for Tough Guys,” The Globe Magazine. August 30, 1958. Cover and pages 03-05.

Millbrook has a bad name, and its officials are just delighted

…a big bit is preffered

By DAVID MacDONALD

It was a sunny morning in June, the traditional time for graduations. In a rambling red-brick building overlooking the Ontario village of Millbrook – a building with the glass, tile and pastel decor of a modern high school – superintendent Hartley Paterson shuffled a sheaf of papers and glanced up at the youth who stood before him.

‘You’ve done well here,’ he said. The compliment was acknowledged with a quiet smile. ‘So you’re going to have the honor of becoming Millbrook’s first graduate. Tomorrow we’re sending you to Burwash. Congratulations.’

Though the prospect of going to the provincial prison farm at Burwash is normally not cause for rejoicing, the youth in faded blue denims broke into a wide grin and took the superintendent’s outstretched hand. After the months he’d spent behind the towering walls of Millbrook, Ontario’s tough new maximum security reformatory, the chance to serve out the rest of his sentence somewhere else seemed almost as welcome as a parole.

A petty but promising criminal and never a model prisoner, he’d been among the charter inmates of Millbrook when it was opened last September to isolate troublemakers from other reformatories in the province. Some had been released earlier after completing their time – one has since returned for a second stretch  – but this was the first to win a good-behavior transfer.

That same day, a few minutes later, another inmate came before Paterson with a special request. Soon due for release, he wanted to complete the last few days of his term in a regular reformatory. ‘Just having a record is bad enough, he explained with feeling, ‘but a discharge from Millbrook is a worse black eye.’

WITH the men who know penal institutions best – i.e. residents – Millbrook is scarcely the most popular, a fact readily acknowledged by its superintendent. ‘This isn’t the nicest place to do time,’ says Paterson, former governor of Toronto’s DDon Jail,’ and it’s not meant to be.’

What Millbrook is meant to be, what it was specially designed for shortly after an outbreak of rioting at Guelph reformatory in 1952, is a place of stern no-nonsense discipline for the more difficult inmates of other provincial institutions. It differs from most reformatories about as much as Dorchester Penitentiary differs from Disneyland. Unlike the unfenced so-called open institutions – where prisoners usually live in barracks-like dormitories, eat together and enjoy comparative freedom of movement and communication – Millbrook is tough, and a man imprisoned behind its 23-foot wall has a monastic time of it.

The first 16 days of his term there are spent in his closed-in cell, cut off from contact with everyone but his jailers, the reformatory psychologist, chaplain and doctor. His meals are pushed in to him through a small opening in the foot of his cell door and he gets out only for short solitary walks in a small exercise yard.

IF behaves well in quarantine, his life at Millbrook improves slightly. He’s allowed cigarets, visitors, a novel from the prison library and a nightly half-hour period to mingle with the other 25 occupants in his cell block. He also gets to work eight hours a day, scrubbing floors.

In time, he can win other privileges – a thin mattress for his steel bunk, newspapers, mail, movies, sports in the yard, a job making license plates, hobby periods or high-school correspondence classes. At Millbrook, a prisoner has no privileges but those he earned by good behavior. He can lose any or all of them easily – by sassing a guard, loafing at his job, or even swearing at another inmate – and he also runs the risk of solitary confinement ‘behind the little green door’ or, for really serious offences, the strap.

At a time when the trend in penology is clearly toward open institutions for treating criminal offenders rather than merely punishin them, the $3,500,000 stronghold at Millbrook has been criticized for its iron discipline, steel bars, brick walls and bullet-proof glass. As one authority in the field of corrections put it recently, ‘How are you going to prepare a man for the outside world by keeping him in a cage?’

THEN is Millbrook, for all its modern custodial trappings, an anachronism? Far from it, asserts Ontario’s deputy minister of reform institutions, Hedley Basher. You can’t have effective minimum security,’ he says, ‘without maximum security to back it up. Just the fact that there is a place like Millbrook has greatly improved discipline in our other reformatories. Maybe it’s largely a fear of the unknown. At any rate, with the troublemakers moved to Millbrook, we’ve already been able to disarm the guard at Guelph and Burwash and we expect to do a great deal more there in the way of corrective treatment and rehabilitation.’ 

If most reformatory inmates stay in line, and out of Millbrook, what about the others who don’t? There are 125 of them at Millbrook now, in three categories. The first is made up of stars, a misleading term for problem prisoners. Most of these are younger men, in their late teens and early twenties, who have already done time before. Group Two is made up of 25 sex deviates. Not rated as security risks or troublemakers – though sex offenders can disrupt normal prison life – they’re confined to Millbrook chiefly for lack of a better place to keep them. Group Three includes 40 drug addicts.

The youngest convict at Millbrook is a baby-faced 17-year-old who knifed a guard at Guelph, the oldest a sex offender of 61. Most inmates have little education but there are some striking exceptions – a dope-addicted doctor and two high-school teachers, both in for sex crimes.

IT’S worth noting that the star prisoners – the troublemakers – cause little trouble at Millbrook, if only because they get little opportunity. Says Paterson: ‘Most of them come here with that hostile spit-in-your-eye attitude. But after a couple of weeks in their cells, with nothing much to do but think, they usually simmer down.’ One reason for this, the superintendent thinks, is the incentive system of privileges. ‘They soon realize that the kind of life they lead here is entirely up to them. If they behave, it gets progressively easier. If not, they can do hard time. The choice is as simple as that.’

Another reason is advanced by Douglas Penfold, a psychologist with the Department of Reform Institutions who spends most of his time at Millbrook. ‘A lot of these men just can’t seem to adjust to group living in an open institution,’ he says. ‘Here they get lots of time to themselves, away from the influence and distractions of other inmates, and they have a better chance to start thinking seriously about their problems and their future. I’d say the attitude of at least 25 per cent of our so-called disturbers had undergone a distinct change for the better.’

While Millbrook may never set any records for turning out model citizens – since its clients are judged to be the worst of a pretty bad lot – an attempt is being made there to reform them. As well as up-to-date medical and dental clinics, two psychologists, a psychiatrist and a case-worker from the John Howard after-care agency are on hand to help prisoners get at the causes of their criminal behavior and fix on some way of overcoming them.

AFTER careful screening and preliminary treatment at Millbrook, many Group Three prisoners have been sent on the provincial clinic for addicts at Mimico. In addition, one Millbrook psychologist, Gordon Johnson, has recently been working at the forensic clinic of the Toronto Psychiatric Hospital, preparing a rehabilitation program for the reformatory’s sex offenders.

Perhaps the most significant development at Millbrook is the fact that its star prisoners will soon be introduced to group counselling, a form of psychotherapy that has proved highly successful in some of the world’s most advanced penal institutions. Members of the custodial staff, who will act as group leaders, are now attending a series of lectures by psychiatrists and sociologists – on their own time and by their own choice.

All such clinical work has the full approval and support of superintendent Paterson, a breezy 44-year-old onetime Royal Canadian Regiment colonel, and his chief aid, James Rea, a big greying man with 20 years’ experience in prison work.

‘This place could never justify itself,’ Paterson believes, ‘if it was nothing but a lockup for bad actors. True, it’s having a good effect on other reformatories. But we want Millbrook to have some positive value for the men who are here, to help them go straight when they leave. If so, Millbrook could be a big advance in penology in Canada.’

AS for Millbrook’s inmates, its strict discipline and rigid routine affect them in various ways. ‘I guess I’d better behave myself here,’ one prisoner wrote to his wife. ‘They’ve got more strap than I’ve got backside.’ Another, on the eve of his discharge, told Paterson that he’d never, never be back in Millbrook again. ‘Next time,’ he said, ‘I’ll make sure I get a big bit.’ In prison parlance, a big bit is two years or more, a term in a federal penitentiary. Perhaps the most remarkable reaction to Millbrook was expressed not long ago by a 19-year-old star prisoner. He arrived there spouting defiance, paid for it in solitary confinement and wound up meekly asking for vocational guidance and advice from psychologist Doug Penfold. When his behavior had improved so markedly that he was offered a transfer back to an open institution, he astounded all by declining with thanks. ‘I can learn a lot more here and keep out of trouble,’ he said. ‘So I’d like to stay till my time’s up.’

Millbrook officials were secretly delighted at this unlikely testimonial. But they didn’t advertise it. After all, the place just can’t afford to get a good name.

Mr. MacDonald was the author of a recent Globe Magazine article on problems facing the courts

Captions:

1) If he behaves, he’s allowed a mattress, mail, novels, prison company and visitors

2) The design of Millbrook is modern, but the walls that make a prison haven’t changed much over the years; Millbrook’s are 23 feet high

3) The job of making license plates for cars is a privilege, awarded for good conduct

4) Guard Lawrence Wiles keeps watch as one prisoner cuts another’s hair; at Millbrook, an inmate has to win the right of mixing with his fellows.

5) Head man: Superintendent Hartley Paterson; The resident chaplain, Dr. Harold Neal, conducts a service; Deputy Superintendent James Rea

Read Full Post »

The remains of the Ontario Reformatory at Guelph // East cell block (at Guelph, Ontario)

Read Full Post »

“Farmer Is Held Up: His Team Taken,” Toronto Globe. August 8, 1918. Page 10.

But the Highway Robbers Are Soon Captured – Boy and Escaped Prisoner.

(Special Despatch to The Globe.)
Brantford, Aug. 7. – John Corton of St. George was held up on the St. George road and his team taken away at the point of a revolver last night. County Constable Taylor and P. C. Thomas went out and in a short time arrested Clarence Brackenbury and a lad named A. Lemon of 17 Able avenue. The latter, being under fourteen years of age, was let go. Brackenbury was remanded this morning for a week. Just prior to being arrested the two were said to be on their way to Waterford. The theft of two bicycles is being charged, as well as carrying concealed weapons and causing damage to schoolhouse property on the St. George road.

Brackenbury is said to be an escaped prisoner from Burwash Farm, having served two months of a year’s sentence before he escaped.

Read Full Post »

Older Posts »